•Analyse the rise of US consumerism
•Discuss the links between consumerism and our unconscious desires
•Consumerism as social control
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)•New theory of human nature
•Hidden primitive sexual forces and animal instincts which need controlling
•The Interpretation of Dreams (1899)
•The Unconscious (1915)
•The Ego and the Id (1923)
•Beyond the Pleasure Principle (1920)
•Civilization & its Discontents (1930
(1993)•Fundamental tension between civilization and the individual
•Human instincts incompatible with the well being of community.
•The Pleasure Principle
Edward Bernays (1891-1995)•Press Agent
•Employed by public information during WW1
•Post war- set up ‘The Council on Public Relations’
•Birth of PR
•Based on the ideas of Freud (his uncle).
•Crystallizing Public Opinion (1923)
'Touches of Freedom'
Easter Day Parade 1929
•The use of pseudo-scientific reports
Fordism•Henry Ford (1863 – 1947)
•Transposes Taylorism to car factories of Detroit
•Standard production models built as they move through the factory
•Requires large investment, but increases productivity so much that relatively high wages can be paid, allowing the workers to buy the product they produce
Need & Desire
Marketing Hidden Needs•Selling emotional security
•Selling reassurance of worth
•Selling Creative Outlets
•Selling Love Objects
•Selling sense of power
•Selling a sense of roots
A new Elite is needed to manage the bewildered herd. 'Manufacturing consent.'
October 24, 1929
The Great Depression
1933-36Roosevelt and the ‘New Deal’
•Consumerism is an ideological project
•We believe that through consumption our desires can be met
•The Consumer Self
•The legacy of Bernays / PR can be felt in all aspects of C21st society
•The conflicts between alternative models of social organisation continue to this day.
•To what extent are our lives ‘free’ under the Western Consumerist system?