Wednesday, 7 May 2014

End of Module Self Evaluation

1. What skills have you developed through this module and how effectively do you think you have applied them?

Throughout this module I have definitely improved my writing skills. Through the various lectures, seminars and study tasks I have gained a better method of recording and interpreting information. I have taken new approaches with my writing for each of the five study tasks. I found some of these more difficult than others as they were approaches to writing I had never been confronted with before. Throughout this module, my ability to record and decipher information has also become noticeably stronger. Choosing my own essay title seemed difficult originally, but being given the independence to choose a topic independently has helped me to outline my core interests.

2. What approaches to/methods of design production have you developed and how have they informed your design development process?

In terms of design production, I wanted to experiment with new ideas. Unfortunately, due to time restrictions, I wasn't able to carry out my main idea: to expose my four hip hop artist quotes onto a fabric screen and foil the quotes onto the final record sleeves. Another limitation was the unavailability of certain other facilities like the laser cutter. As an alternative solution, I attempted to cut the quotes out with a scalpel. This proved to be extremely difficult and the outcome looked rushed, scruffy and undesirable. I was eventually able to lasercut, however it was really near to the deadline so again I had to alter my original production ideas. The final method of production reflects hip hop culture through the use of photographs of each artist, their lyrics presented in a hand-written typeface, gold spray painted stencils resembling graffiti spray painting, and finally a quote from the artists but also my essay to link them all together.

3. What strengths can you identify in your work and how have/will you capitalise on these?

I particularly enjoyed the writing element of this module. As it is the only module where we focus on the academic side of art and design, I feel I have gained new knowledge on a broad spectrum of topics. Writing is something I have always enjoyed, which I think has benefitted me throughout the essay and various study tasks. I will capitalise on this by ensuring I am organised, determined and motivated in future writing tasks – particularly my dissertation. I have found this module one of the most interesting so far. I have particularly enjoyed learning about identity and constructing 'the other'.

4. What weaknesses can you identify in your work and how will you address these in the future?

Again, time restrictions were a big issue for me in this module – particularly affecting the method of production. I was confronted with a series of limitations due to poor time management and unrealistic goals. This definitely caused me to fall behind schedule and effect my final outcomes. In the future, I will make sure I have prepared my ideas more realistically.

5. Identify five things that you will do differently next time and what do you expect to gain from doing these?
  • Next time I will allow more time for mistakes.
  • I will ensure my final outcomes are made to the highest possible quality. This will add an emphasis and justify the time spent creating it.
  • I need to seek more advice from others (within University and externally) to refine my ideas to the most appropriate outcomes.
  • I don't feel pleased with the amount of research I managed to carry out during this module. In future I need to go outside of my comfort zone to gain as much knowledge and content as possible.
  • I need to learn to start looking at my mistakes as a learning curve as opposed to a step backwards.


Tuesday, 6 May 2014

Vinyl Record Research

Spray-painted vinyl records
Golden records as place settings made by spraying found records gold and adding a custom CD label.
"Since they met over their love of DJing, they spray painted gold vinyl records and created custom “record labels” using printable CD labels. Each record had a personal song dedication for that guest – so when they heard the song, they knew it was for them." -

The Great Gatsby Limited edition platinum and gold vinyl records.

The Pet Shop Boys: Yes: Boxed Vinyl Limited Edition 
The Vinyl Factory: Pet Shop Boys Yes Boxed Vinyl Limited Edition Product Details: • Hand crafted smoked transparent Perspex box with gold plated metal tick mounted on outer front. • 11 super heavyweight 200-gram vinyl records pressed on the classic EMI 1400, each featuring ‘Yes’ album track plus exclusive b-side instrumental version. With labels printed one special pantone colour per record. • 11 inner sleeves featuring exclusive PSB artwork on front. with track title and lyrics on back.

OUGD501: COP2 Final Essay

Identifying ‘the Other’ Within Hip Hop Culture

In order to understand the concept of ‘Othering’, it is important to first consider identity. In some ways it can be argued that identity and ‘Othering’ are two separate ends of the spectrum. This is because our identities are what we believe­ to be visible and controllable. The ‘Other’ is identity’s opposite, but ironically, also one of the main catalysts to influence particular behavior, belief and self-presentation. ‘The Other’ is the unspoken negative space. It is one person’s opinions, beliefs and behavior against another.

Identity is formed through an on-going list of aspects. These include self-presentation, how a person speaks, where they are from, who they surround themselves with, their influences, their interests, upbringing, genetics, fears, sense of humor, skills and abilities – social skills and appropriateness, religion and belief, gender stereotypes and language functions and sexuality. These are just a few examples of the broad spectrum, which determine identity. Each individual is unique. People tend to develop an understanding of themselves over a long period of time, through a range of new experiences, surroundings and, most importantly, other people.

The sociological approach to defining ‘othering’ is to study different groups within society. As opposed to focusing on an individual, sociological analysis tries to decipher the cause and effect of different groups within society. In this process, ‘othering’ is still important. It can be suggested that each group forms in response to ‘the other’. A group or unit of people choose to present themselves in a particular manner, either to gain a response from others around them, or to feel united with like-minded others. It could then be argued that people may feel pressured to ‘fit in’ or conform to behavior or habits they may not feel confident about otherwise. Influence of ‘the Other’ works in subtle, and not always conscious ways but it can have a huge impact.

One example of a core influence amongst many young people today is hip hop culture. Although thirty years ago the term ‘hip hop’ did not even exist, it has become one of the most talked about, respected, admired but also challenged cultures since the late 1900’s. The first ever rap hit was performed by Sugarhill Gang. After their release 'Rapper's Delight', the group's fame soon escalated. It was this hit which entered hip hop into the mainstream, introducing the masses to rap.

Professor S. Craig Watkins researches interactions between youth, race, media and pop culture. He states: “Hip hop has become the most visible voice for black culture, and it’s definitely changing the broader social culture.” Through its bold language, style and attitude, hip hop has formed a new wave of identity since its birth in the South Bronx and throughout the northeast during the early and mid-1970s. The identity of hip hop culture is one which has become one of the most influential amongst youths in modern-day society. It is arguable that the strong sense of unity provides comfort, strength and belonging amongst young people. That sense of 'belonging' ties into theories of 'othering' because hip hop fans are belonging in one social circle, making them feel stronger than those who 'belong' elsewhere. Identity works hand-in-hand with the idea of belonging. In order to belong, a person must act a particular way, dress with a certain style, speak with a specific tone and only behave in ways which are deemed acceptable within their social group. Once a person feels accepted, they start to feel like they belong, whether it be hip hop culture, or say, joining a new school. The desire of multiple individual seeking the same sense of belonging begins to form a unit; A group of people sharing the same understanding.

“…Hip hop has encompassed not just a musical genre, but also a style of dress, dialect and sensibilities, way of looking at the world, and an aesthetic that reflects the sensibilities of a large population of youth born between 1965 and 1984.” (Aldridge and Stewart). As described by Aldridge and Stewart, hip hop is not just about the music. It also encompasses a strong visual, spoken and behavioral 'aesthetic'. The music is built up from all of these elements; the image of hip hop changes just as frequently as the current affairs addressed in hip hop lyrics. The dialect of hip hop takes a wide range of on-going and ever-changing language features. It can be argued that the language of hip hop is unclassifiable. The broad influence of hip hop generates a need for adaption and development, just like any other musical genre. It can not be denied that visual identity, spoken identity and written identity (the lyrics themselves) each play a role in forming what is known as hip hop culture. The sense of 'othering' fuels the excitement and competitive nature of hip hop. Each lyric is to be more powerful, creative, imaginative, inspiring than the opposing rappers.

Like hip hop, every musical genre is marked with its own label and stereotypes. Pop music, for example, is often repetitive. It focuses on a memorable melody or riff to get into the audiences head. It tends to focus more on relationships, break-ups and love. Similar to some rap music, the songs generally consist of a series of verses, broken up with a repeated chorus. Pop music is commonly in the charts and the lyrics are often made suitable for a younger audience (particularly on radio play). It can be argued that pop music is less controversial lyrically. Whereas pop music focuses on a strong visual identity through medias such as eccentric music videos or daring fashion trends, hip hop's core strength and focus goes into its controversial lyrics and attitude.

The man who bridged the gap between all extremes of rap audience was Kris Parker, better known as KRS-One. KRS-One effectively outlines the abstract nature of hip hop's existence through a list of examples of what hip hop is not. This is interesting as by doing this, his explanation incorporates 'othering'. He explains: "Hip Hop is not a person, a place or a physical thing; it is an awareness. You cannot actually go to Hip Hop, or wear Hip Hop, or eat Hip Hop. Hip Hop exists as a shared idea; it never enters physical reality, it is a way to be. You cannot drink a can of Hip Hop and suddenly know how to rap. You cannot put Hip Hop on as clothing, or read a book in order to understand Hip Hop. Hip Hop begins as an awareness; as an alternative behavior that causes one to rap, or break (dance), or write graffiti, or deejay. Hip Hop in its true essence, is a shared urban idea - a unified feel…" In summary to KRS-One's statement, hip hop is an art, just like any other form of music. It is not a physical means which people acquire, it is, as he describes, 'a way to live'.

Watkins summarises the identity and fashions of hip hop as he perceives it. “It’s the fashions worn by free-thinking young black males in downtown Houston, L.A. or Indianapolis. It’s the music of 50 Cent and the pioneering sounds of the Sugar Hill Gang and Grandmaster Flash. It’s Afrika Bambaataa and the legacy of street-surviving kids in the Bronx in the early 1970s, before the hype. It’s spoken word and New York City subway graffiti and films like Menace II Society and Boyz N’ the Hood that shine an unsparing light on the collision of urban ghetto life and black youth. It’s African American activists, artists and business moguls like Russell Simmons who want to mobilize the hip hop generation into a political force to be reckoned with. It’s a walk and attitude and youthful, often rebellious, voice that resonates with high school students in Kansas as well as club-goers in Tokyo.” (Watkins, 2008). Not only does Watkins’ definition cover the general identity generation and roots of hip hop, he also adds a sentimental element of the impact it has had on him. From this brief explanation, it is evident that Watkins has been moved by hip hop. His analysis is detailed, passionate and admiring. Although hip hop has been challenged numerous times due to its bold and sometimes controversial habits, it is arguable that it is respected and admired by many people too.

There is an on-going debate in current media as to whether hip hop is to be celebrated or diminished. Tricia Rose explains the conflicting views of hip hop. "On the one hand, music and cultural critics praise rap's role as an educational tool, point out that black women rappers are rare examples of aggressive pro-women lyricists in popular music, and defend rap's ghetto stories as real-life reflections that should draw attention to the burning problems of racism and economic oppression, rather than to questions of obscenity." (Rose, 1994). This suggests that hip hop is something positive, strong and admirable. The purpose of hip hop in this view is that it is something to appreciate and give credit to. It can be suggested that this opinion could possibly be one from a youth or hip hop artist themselves.

Understanding an art for what it is intended to be can largely determine the views and opinions formed around it. Rose continues, "On the other hand, news media attention on rap music seems fixated on instances of violence at rap concerts, rap producers' illegal use of musical samples, gangsta raps' lurid fantasies of cop killing and female dismemberment, and black nationalist rappers' suggestions that white people are the devil's decibels." This supports the opposing view, that hip hop is not to be encouraged as it focuses on violent and sexist themes. The inclusion of a reference to white people are suggested to be the ‘devil’s decibels’. This also generates debate about elements of racism within hip hop culture and rap lyrics.

A key debate surrounding the topic of hip hop culture is gender roles. The representation of Men and Women in rap is one that has been challenged continuously in the media. It can be argued that some (not all) rap is bias towards men. Throughout the history of hip hop, there have been implications of disrespect towards women. Women have been referred to as 'bitch', 'hoe' and 'slut' just to name a few. For example, Eazy-E's lyric from N.W.A - Boys-N-The Hood reads:

"Went to her house to get her out of the pad
Dumb hoe says something stupid that made me mad
She said somethin that I couldn't believe
So I grabbed the stupid bitch by her nappy ass weave
She started talkin shit, wouldn't you know?
Reached back like a pimp and slapped the hoe
Her father jumped out and he started to shout
So I threw a right-cross cold knocked him out"

This example shows an aggressive nature towards his partner. The tone of this verse starts relatively easy-going, but escalates quickly into an aggressive, impatient and violent nature. By referring to her 'talkin shit, wouldn't you know?' he implies that this is no surprise to him. He then refers to himself as a 'Pimp' for slapping his partner. This sets an example for his fans that slapping women is acceptable, and even something to take pride in. Next he describes how he then knocks out the girls father due to being confronted for a second time. This supposedly adds an emphasis to his power and strength at this point in the verse. He represents himself as unstoppable. It is lyrics like these, which would arguably have had a strong impact on young males who admired rap groups like N.W.A. If somebody's idol is behaving in a certain way, it is likely that people may try to follow their example.

Adams and Fuller, in their analysis on misogynistic lyrics in rap, state: "Misogyny in gansta rap is the promotion, glamorization, support, humorization, justification,or normalisation of oppressive ideas about women. In this genre of rap music (specifically African American women) are reduced to mere objects - objects that are only good for sex and abuse and are ultimately a burden to men." (Adams and Fuller, 2006) They define rap music as “the poetry of the youth who are often disregarded as a result of their race and class status… Hope, love fear, anger, frustration, pride, violence, and misogyny have all been expressed through the medium of rap."

Tricia Rose addresses the nature of female rap and its differences to male rap. She states; "…black women rapper's central contestation is in the arena of sexual politics...Clearly, female rappers are at least indirectly responding to male rappers' sexist constructions of black women." This suggests that black female identity within rap music is partially formulated by a conflict against men. The behavior of men and women in relation to one-another, relates back to othering. Each sex, in this case, has their individual beliefs and opinion of what is right and wrong in terms of gender roles.

In hip hop, males often set examples of masculinity through belittling women and their roles in society. Black women rappers' response to this is to prove to themselves and these black male rappers, that they are independent and strong. They challenge the views set by the opposing males. Rose explains this further by stating: "This opposition between male and female rappers serves to produce imaginary clarity in the realm of raps sexual politics, rather than confront its contradictory nature." The 'imaginary clarity', which Rose refers to is the bridge between male and female values against one another. Rose suggests that instead of resolving the sexual politics present in black male and female rap, each gender insists on defending their own corner. Sociological theories of othering then become present again. As two separate units, male and female rappers sway their attitudes to challenge the other (in many cases such as these; the opposite gender). Male rappers continue to follow egotistical values of the power of men over women, while female rappers do their best to defend themselves and prove these standards wrong.

A good example which supports Rose's analysis on the opposition of male and female rap is the song 'Can't Hold Us Down' by Christina Aguilera and Lil' Kim – two female artists who have become popular recently within young teenage groups. This song is about women fighting back for gender equality. In one verse, Christina Aguilera sings 'If you look back in history, it's a common double standard of society. The guy gets all the glory, the more he can score, while the girl can do the same and yet you call her a whore.' Although this is a large generalisation, she supports the research carried out by both Adams and Fuller and Rose. The issues of misogynistic values set by males, is being addressed in this verse. Lil' Kim then continues:

'So what am I not supposed to have an opinion
Should I be quiet just because I'm a woman
Call me a bitch cos I speak what's on my mind
Guess it's easier for you to swallow if I sat and smiled'

Although this song was released in July 2003, it is relatable to N.W.A's Boys-N-The Hood lyrics from 1989. Where Eazy-E raps 'Dumb hoe says something stupid that made me mad. She said somethin' that I couldn't believe.' He insinuates that his partner is a 'dumb hoe' because; in his opinion she 'says something stupid'. Lil' Kim's verse indirectly challenges this by stating women will be called a 'bitch' because they speak what's on their mind. Their is an evident contrast of opinion here. The situation is turned upside down in Lil' Kim's argument, implying that a man is only happy when things are going his way. As soon as he appears to be challenged, he behaves irrationally and unacceptably – which in Eazy-E's case is to refer to his partner as a 'dumb hoe' and a 'bitch'.

Henri Tajfel's Social-identity theory proposes that we define ourselves in terms of the group that we think we belong to and we seek approval and status in relation to others. For example people often define themselves in terms of nationality (e.g., American, British, French). Just like each country wants to be perceived as better than the others, different hip hop groups or gangs seek to be above the rest.

According to social-identity theory, people can boost their self-esteem by discriminating against outgroups. And, research generally confirms that threats to self-esteem increase prejudice, which in turn enhances self-esteem. This is broken down into four main stages: Firstly, the need for self-esteem. The reaction is then determined through either their personal identity, or social identity. This is then further broken down into an individual’s personal achievements, favouritism towards their social group and derogation of other groups outside their own. All of these elements come together in order to gain self-esteem. This process often works in a cycle.

In conclusion, it can be argued that hip hop covers an extremely broad spectrum in terms of visual, spoken and written identity. Hip hop's identity is defined through its historical roots and also the development in society. The on-going debates about sexist and racist themes within rap lyrics are yet to be resolved. There is no denying that hip hop has heavily inspired many people to fight for what they believe in. Whether the influence of hip hop culture is perceived as good or bad, it is evident through research and analysis of people such as Watkins, Aldridge and Stewart, Rose, Adams and Fuller and Tajfel that hip hop has grabbed a huge amount of attention since its birth in the early 1900s. Hip hop culture and identity is not just about the music, it is about a whole historical and sociological movement. In the words of KRS-one; 'Hip Hop is something you live' and life is never black and white.


·      Aldridge, D & Steward, J. (2005). Introduction: Hip Hop in History: Past, Present and Future. Available: Last accessed 10th Febuary 2014.

·      KRS-One. An Introduction to Hip Hop. Available: Last accessed 10th Febuary 2014.

·      YouTube. (2007). Nas & Az In a Sprite Commercial. Available: Last accessed 10th Febuary 2014.

·      AZ Lyrics. (2000). N.W.A Lyrics - Boyz-N-The Hood. Available: Last accessed 10th Febuary 2014.

·      Cundiff, G. (2013). The Influence of Rap and Hip-Hop Music: An Analysis on Audience Perceptions of Misogynistic Lyrics. Available: Last accessed 10th Febuary 2014.
·      Tricia Rose (1994) Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America. Wesleyan University Press

·      McLeod, S. (2008). Social Identity Theory. Available: Last accessed 10th Febuary 2014.

·      BBC. (2008). Ideas In Depth. Available: Last accessed 10th Febuary 2014.

Studio Brief 2: Theory into Practice: Propose, Produce, Present

For this project, I wanted to come up with a concept which clearly portrayed the key themes of my essay, in a physical form. As my essay was focusing on identity and constructing 'the other' within Hip Hop culture, I thought about different ways I could produce a physical product which clearly conveyed the most important elements of hip hop culture. 

My initial idea was to create a series of posters. I wanted the posters to incorporate the four pillars of hip hop culture outlined by Afrika Bambaataa: MCing, DJing, breaking and graffiti writing. It was also essential that my concept included reference to certain elements outlined in my essay such as social groups within hip hop, and also gender roles. As this was a vast amount of information to contain in such a specific format, I thought about the most effective ways to present my information.

The majority of my research was spent listening to a wide variety of hip hop tracks and analysing the lyrics. I wanted to get a good understanding of the general meanings behind certain songs in order to find a select few relevant to my essay. The broad range of topics covered in the lyrics made it difficult to decide which artists to choose.

Initially, I began experimenting with quotes and lyrics from Jay-Z and Queen Latifah. The initial experiments in Illustrator are shown below. They began as really simple, typographic posters with a full focus on the quotes:

The original typeface I experimented with was Bebas Neue. I wanted to work with something bold and  eye-catching to support the Artist's strong passions and emotions towards hip hop.


During the early stages of my design development, I came up with the new idea to make a series of vinyl sleeves. I figured that vinyl sleeves would be a more appropriate product to support my essay as they were a big part of the music culture back when hip hop originated in the 70s. During a short discussion with Richard, I suggested this idea with the possibility of foiling the vinyls to symbolise the 'bling' of hip hop culture. As image and wealth are two core elements of the hip hop identity, I thought this would be an interesting and relevant approach. 

Richard was pleased with the idea, suggesting it could be interesting to think about collectors vinyl box sets. This gave me a good base to start thinking about scale, format, colour and function. I returned to my research on hip hop lyrics to gather more content for my vinyl covers. As Queen Latifah's lyrics and comments on hip hop were supportive of my essay, I continued to use her as one of my four artists. 

In order to get the correct measurements and as physical research, I went into a charity shop where they had an offer of 5 7" records for £1. I bought these to see how they had been made and get an idea of the different stocks and paper weights. 

The song I chose to use for Queen Latifah was a song called 'U.N.I.T.Y.' This song supports the observations made about the male-dominant aspect of hip hop and the female's fight to change it. As the lyrics were relevant to the vinyl cover concept, I wanted to incorporate them into the design too. I did this by filling the vinyl cover with the lyrics in a small lower-case to work as a backdrop. In order for this to work I needed to justify all the lines individually, ensuring it fit exactly. This was first tried out using Helvetica Neue. The developments are shown below:

After placing the lyrics into the record sleeve frame, I placed the quote ontop of the lyrics to see how the two would work together.
Personally, I preferred the vinyl when the colours were reversed to white text on a black background. The type stood out more effectively, and the design looked more sophisticated.

Unfortunately, due to time restrictions, I knew I realistically wouldn't be able to expose a screen. As screen-printing would have been the only possible method to print white onto black, I wouldn't be able to. As a proposal idea, I created a mock-up of this design variation in Photoshop. It also helped me to see my design in context. 

Once I had accepted there was not enough time to carry out the processes I had originally hoped for, I reconsidered my next staged of development. For my last two artists, I wanted to include KRS-One as I had directly quoted him in my essay. I then wanted to concentrate on Salt N Pepa - one of the first successful female rap groups. This then meant I was working with two female rappers, and two male. I wanted to see how different the lyrics looked in comparison to one another. 

KRS-One: Hip Hop Lives

Queen Latifah: U.N.I.T.Y

Salt N Pepa: Ain't Nuthin' but a She Thing

Jay-Z: Heart of the City (Ain't no Love)

Adding a thick border around the edges of the vinyl gave the overall image more impact. The typeface I decided on was Gobold Bold. I liked this font's narrow, striking and legible aesthetic.  


As I was informed there were no available laser cutting slots until after the COP2 deadline, I began to attempt cutting the quotes out by hand with a scalpel.. This proved to be close to impossible however, so I had to reconsider my production method for a third time.

As a final resort, after speaking to my peers about my time restrictions and not being able to complete the gold foiling, it was suggested that I should try experimenting with creating gold borders around each of the vinyl sleeves. 

I thought tho would be a much faster print method which would allow me more time to get the best result possible. Working with two measured out 7x7" paper templates, I covered the front and back of the vinyl sleeves. This mean the only sections showing were the borders and edges.

My first few attempts were carried out on the black and white mock versions of the vinyl designs. I first experimented with simply spraying the gold paint onto the flat template. However, because the templates were not secured to the design, they moved as soon as a I used the spray paint.

This then made me curious to see how readable/viewable the design would appear through the light application of the gold spray paint. This experiment proved the paint was too thick for this method as it almost fully covered up the designs. This method was also not ideal as it was difficult to keep a consistent light pressure when applying the paint.

For my third attempt, I experimented using a tiny amount of spray mount to hold the template in place on top of the design. From previous uses of spray mount, I knew I would be able to remove the templates again without ripping or damaging the design below as long as they were placed lightly and for a short space of time. I was really pleased with this outcome - the templates effectively covered the main designs, leaving a bold, neat and clearly defined gold edge on both the front and back of the vinyl cover.

The only downside of this experiment was that it was difficult to see the original vinyl net/template beneath the gold paint. This made the cutting process more difficult and time-consuming. I remembered this for the next few attempts, knowing to cut the template out beforehand.

Once the paint was dry, I folded and glued the vinyl cover to see how it would look as a final design. This also meant I was able to compare it to the vinyl sleeves I had been using as original inspiration. The dimensions worked perfectly and the vinyl record was able to slot comfortably into the sleeve.

Due to the large amount of spray paint needed, with a small amount of space, I often had to take breaks allowing the paint to dry. This was another time-consuming factor which could have been avoided if I had planned my time more carefully.

Fortunately, the day before the module submission, I was able to get my hip hop quotes laser cut. I used  a thick white card - similar to my original templates. Luckily the stencils came out really well considering the short amount of time I had to create them. It was a shame however that I only had one day to experiment with these before the hand in!

I placed the stencils on top of the front side of their vinyl design (the lyrics side). I used paper clips to hold the two in place this time. 

In reflection to this project, I think it was probably one of my favourite. Apart from the multiple time restrictions, I really enjoyed researching into the lyrics of hip hop as language is something I am particularly interested in. I was not entirely pleased with my final outcomes as i felt they were rushed and not made to the best quality. I still think the designs would have worked much more effectively had they been foiled with gold instead of spray paint. However, the spray paint effect ties in with the concept of hip hop culture as it is used for graffiti art. As graffiti is outlined as one of the 'four pillars of hip hop' by Afrikaa Bambaataa, the concept is in a way better justified.

I think the key focus of this project was the concept over design quality. Realistically I knew my final outcomes were going to have flaws due to not enough time to recover from various mistakes encountered along the way. If I were to carry out this project again, I would definitely screen print the quotes and possible use a black/ more unusual stock to give the vinyl sleeves a bigger sense of importance and value. 

Finally, I was intended to create a small belly band or container to keep the four vinyls together and emphasise the fact they were a set e.g a collectors edition. Unfortunately I didn't have time to do this either so that is something I would definitely create next time. From this project, I have learnt that a lot of work can be produced in a short space of time -- but if the design aims are unrealistic in the given time frame, the outcomes will reflect a rushed creative approach. I need to learn to be more realistic and not attempt to produce more work than is physically possible.