Sunday, 24 November 2013

Essay Research

Identity & creating 'the other'

Key elements I want to focus on:
-Identity and language
-Theories of 'The Other'
-Types of identity
-Defining identity
-Negative Space

Carl Jung

Best Known For:

An example of the types of questions asked in Jung's Typology test:

I decided to take the test for myself out of curiosity..

..My Result: Extraverted Sensing Thinking Judging (ESTJ)
Web Source

ESTJs thrive on order and continuity. Being extraverted, their focus involves organization of people, which translates into supervision. While ENTJs enjoy organizing and mobilizing people according to their own theories and tactically based agendas, ESTJs are content to enforce "the rules," often dictated by tradition or handed down from a higher authority.

ESTJs are joiners. They seek out like-minded companions in clubs, civic groups, churches and other service organizations. The need for belonging is woven into the fiber of SJs. The family likewise is a central focus for ESTJs, and attendance at such events as weddings, funerals and family reunions is obligatory.

Tradition is important to the ESTJ. Holidays, birthdays and other annual celebrations are remembered and observed often religiously by this type. The ESTJ is inclined to seek out his roots, to trace the family heritage back to honored ancestors both for a sense of family respectability and for a sense of security and belonging.

Service, the tangible expression of responsibility, is another key focus for ESTJs. They love to provide and to receive good service. The ESTJ merchant who provides dependable service has done much to enhance her self image.

ESTJs have an acute sense for orthodoxy. Much of their evaluation of persons and activities reflects their strong sense of what is "normal" and what isn't. ESTJ humor is frequently centered around something or someone being off center or behaving abnormally.

ESTJs promote the work ethic. Power, position and prestige should be worked for and earned. Laziness is rarely viewed with ambivalence nor benevolence by this type.
Some men can make decisions and some cannot. Some men fret and delay under criticism. I used to have a saying1 that applies here, and I note that some people have picked it up.
--Harry S. Truman, Mr. Citizen
1"If you can't stand the heat, get out of the kitchen."

The ESTJ is outspoken, a person of principles, which are readily expressed. The ESTJ is not afraid to stand up for what she believes is right even in the face of overwhelming odds. ESTJs are able to make the tough calls.

Occupations attracting ESTJs include teaching, coaching, banking, political office, and management at all levels.

Functional Analysis:
Extraverted Thinking
ESTJs are very good at making impersonal decisions quickly, and standing by those decisions. They live in their Extraverted Thinking functioning, thus, their prime directive is in discovering that which is true and logical in the events of the real world. Circumstances calling for product invite the ESTJ to supervise or direct other individuals toward production and productivity. Extraverts are attracted to the "object," the external things and people in observable reality. This bent translates into a natural interest in goods and material objects. >

Introverted Sensing
The secondary Introverted Sensing is like that of the ISTJ, but not as strong. Si provides practical form and concept data to the Te head, however, form is not the overriding principle, especially if Thinking has already decided. In times of need, ESTJs are tempted to overlook even necessary information if its absence impedes closure. Secondary sensing sometimes translates into interest in sports. The persistence of primary Thinking gives many ESTJs a desire for discipline and regimen which can be beneficial in skills development in the arena. >
Extraverted iNtuition
As the ESTJ matures, and as situations arise which call for suspension of criticism, Extraverted iNtuition is allowed to play. Under the leadership of the Te function, iNtuition gravitates toward the discovery of broad categories which at worst amount to stereotypes. Those ESTJs who hone their Ne abilities may find success in academia. (I've encountered ESTJs whose Ne overshadows the auxiliary Si function--for whatever reason--to the extent that there is an appearance of NT radical geekism.)
Introverted Feeling
This function may rarely be expressed. ESTJs who have cultivated, or have been blessed with, a "natural indirect expression of good will by inference," have great prospects of developing genuine friendships (as opposed to ESTJs who merely act out the behavior of Extraverted Feeling). Such a weak, introverted function is best observed in facial expression, eye contact, body language, and verbally only by implication.

Famous ESTJs:
  • Simon Peter (Christ's disciple)
  • John Heywood (c.1497-c.1580, collector of English colloquialisms)
  • U.S. Presidents:James MonroeAndrew JacksonWilliam Henry "Tippecanoe" HarrisonFranklin PierceGrover ClevelandHarry S. TrumanLyndon B. JohnsonGeorge W. Bush
  • Carrie Nation
  • Elliot Ness
  • John D. Rockefeller
  • Bette Davis
  • Robert A. Taft (U.S. senator, son of Pres. Wm. H. Taft)
  • Sam Walton, owner and founder of WalMart stores
  • Barbara Stanwyck
  • Rev. Billy Graham 
  • Dale Bumpers (U.S. Senator, D-Arkansas)
  • Phil Fulmer, head football coach of the U. Tenn Vols
  • Pat Head Summit, head basketball coach of the Lady Vols
  • Bill Frist, M.D. (U.S. Senate Majority Leader)

Are extroverts Happier than Introverts?

Do You Have Good Character?

What really makes people who they are? Personality is defined as “the combination of characteristics or qualities that form an individual’s unique character.” It is often misunderstood. Businessmen and teachers have been trying to figure out how to use the personality of their workers and students to maximize productivity since the early 1970s, when the idea was first made popular by psychologist Dr. Carl Jung. Personality can’t be seen or touched and yet significantly affects how people feel and experience their lives. It is highly correlated to learning and productivity. But does it relate to well-being and happiness?

Extrovert vs Introvert

Two major personality types are extroverts and introverts. These types are known to have unique ways of feeling re-energized and motivated. They each have characteristic ways of interacting with the world and processing information.

Researchers estimate extroverts make up 50 - 74 percent of the population. These “social butterflies” thrive under social stimulation. Extroverts focus on their external environment, the people and activities around them. Extroverts thrive in active, fast-paced jobs, such as politics, teaching and sales, where quick decisions are commonplace. Extroverts learn by doing and enjoy talking through ideas and problems. Multi-tasking comes easily to them. Two examples of famous extroverts are Oprah and current U.S. President, Barack Obama.

The other 16 - 50 percent of the population consists of introverts, who get their energy from having “alone time.” Careers promoting introvert’s strength include scientists, writers and artists, although television personalities David Lettermen and Barbara Walters are self-proclaimed introverts. Introverts enjoy spending time alone or in small groups of people, but may get overwhelmed in new situations or in large groups of people. They prefer to focus on one task at a time and observe a situation before jumping in.

As it turns out, the brains of introverts and extroverts are wired differently! The front part of introvert’s brains are most active and stimulated by solitary activities while the back part of extrovert’s brains are most active. This part of the brain is stimulated by sensory events coming in from the external world! In addition, a chemical called “dopamine” is released by our brains whenever we experience something positive. It’s an automatic reward center and makes us feel good! Extroverts need more dopamine to feel an effect, whereas introverts have a low dopamine threshold. They don’t require a lot of stimulation to feel rewarded.

Which Type is Most Successful?

Issues may arise when an introvert and extrovert interact. An introvert may view an extrovert as bossy and overbearing whereas an extrovert may view an introvert as stuck up or shy. In fact, shyness is a trait commonly used to describe introvert, but both personality types can be shy. Shyness is a feeling of uneasiness or anxiety experienced in social situations. Unlike introverts, who prefer less social stimulation, shy people often crave social interaction, but avoid it for fear of criticism or rejection.

So which personality type has the real advantage, the extrovert or the introvert? Experience shows teamed up, the extrovert and the introvert, are a powerful team. Steve Jobs, a charismatic extrovert, teamed up with introvert Steve Wozniak to co-found Apple Inc.

Are Extroverts Happier Than Introverts?

There’s no clear answer to this question. Current tests consistently rate extroverts higher on the happiness scale than introverts. However, many of these tests measure degree of happiness using activities like socializing and interacting with the outside world, both of which extroverts need to thrive! Introverts do experience happiness when they around other people, but are most happy when participating in lower-key activities. These are not accounted for on current tests and likely causes introverts to score lower.

There also appears to be a cultural factor affecting the happiness level of extroverts and introverts. Many Western cultures tend to favor extroverted personalities, people who act quickly, appear friendly and are outgoing. Introverts often feel pressure to be extroverts, which can lead to anxiety or lowered self-esteem. A majority of Eastern cultures tend to encourage people who are more contemplative, quiet and appear serene. Introverts in these cultures don’t feel the stigma to be extroverted and so are more accepting of their inherent personality. Research supports the keys to happiness lie in having a sense of purpose, self acceptance and a supportive social network, which both personality types can form.

Perhaps happiness truly is in the eye of the beholder.

The Meyers-Briggs test, based off of four categories, is used by professionals in many fields. Take this free test to check your personality type.


During my tutorial with Richard, I discussed the key elements of identity that I wanted to focus my essay on. I presented him with my primary research in Carl Jung and Stephen Pinker. Richard's response was positive, although he suggested that I should narrow my idea down to a more specific area of focus such as cultural identity. From this I could push my idea further, possibly looking at how cultural identity theories have developed through the ages. 

I want to form a broad discussion on the theory of cultural identity based on visual, written and spoken aspects. Language is something I am very interested in, so I am hoping to create an essay which is original and informative, using as many sources as possible to support this.


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